A vertical p-n junction is a solar PV cell. Light that strikes the p-n junction produces charge carriers that move as an electrical current from the p side to the n side. The junction produces more charge carriers per unit area and current when more light is shining on it.
The majority of the current exits the cell to the current. The overall current output is decreased because some of the current passes from the n side to the p side in the opposite direction.
This is analogous to a current source that is anti-parallelly coupled to a p-n diode. The amount of current generated by the current source is proportional to the amount of sunlight received. As reverse leakage current, some current leaks back through the cell’s p-n junction.
When the voltage across the cell exceeds the p-n junction’s voltage cutoff, a significant amount of current flows in the opposite direction (approximately 0.5V in this regard). However, if the voltage across the cell equals the voltage reduction, the energy and current output of the cell are greatly reduced.
On a hot day, even though more charge carriers and current are generated due to the increased intensity of sunlight, the cut in voltage of the p-n junction decreases with temperature, similar to the emitter base junction behavior in a Bipolar transistors.
As a result, the maximum voltage at which the cell can operate is reduced. Because power output is the product of current through the cell and voltage across it, the cell’s power output is reduced. Read more Cost of installing solar panels in Nigeria
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